E7-2 (Determine Cash Balance) Presented below are a number of independent situations.
For each individual situation, determine the amount that should be reported as cash. If the item(s) is not reported as cash, explain the rationale.
1. Checking account balance $925,000; certificate of deposit $1,400,000; cash advance to subsidiary of
$980,000; utility deposit paid to gas company $180.
2. Checking account balance $500,000; an overdraft in special checking account at same bank as normal checking account of $17,000; cash held in a bond sinking fund $200,000; petty cash fund $300; coins and currency on hand $1,350.
3. Checking account balance $590,000; postdated check from customer $11,000; cash restricted due to maintaining compensating balance requirement of $100,000; certified check from customer $9,800; postage stamps on hand $620.
4. Checking account balance at bank $42,000; money market balance at mutual fund (has checking privileges) $48,000; NSF check received from customer $800.
5. Checking account balance $700,000; cash restricted for future plant expansion $500,000; short-term
Treasury bills $180,000; cash advance received from customer $900 (not included in checking account balance); cash advance of $7,000 to company executive, payable on demand; refundable deposit of $26,000 paid to federal government to guarantee performance on construction contract.
E7-8 (Recording Bad Debts) At the end of 2010 Sorter Company has accounts receivable of $900,000 and an allowance for doubtful accounts of $40,000. On January 16, 2011, Sorter Company determined that its receivable from Ordonez Company of $8,000 will not be collected, and management authorized its write-off.
(a) Prepare the journal entry for Sorter Company to write off the Ordonez receivable.
(b) What is the net realizable value of Sorter Company’s accounts receivable before the write-off of the Ordonez receivable?
(c) What is the net realizable value of Sorter Company’s accounts receivable after the write-off of the Ordonez receivable?
E8-5 (Inventoriable Costs—Error Adjustments) Werth Company asks you to review its December 31,
2010, inventory values and prepare the necessary adjustments to the books. The following information is given to you.
1. Werth uses the periodic method of recording inventory. A physical count reveals $234,890 of inventory on hand at December 31, 2010.
2. Not included in the physical count of inventory is $10,420 of merchandise purchased on December 15 from Browser. This merchandise was shipped f.o.b. shipping point on December 29 and arrived in January. The invoice arrived and was recorded on December 31.
3. Included in inventory is merchandise sold to Bubbey on December 30, f.o.b. destination. This merchandise was shipped after it was counted. The invoice was prepared and recorded as a sale on account for $12,800 on December 31. The merchandise cost $7,350, and Bubbey received it on
4. Included in inventory was merchandise received from Dudley on December 31 with an invoice price of $15,630. The merchandise was shipped f.o.b. destination. The invoice, which has not yet arrived, has not been recorded.
5. Not included in inventory is $8,540 of merchandise purchased from Minsky Industries. This merchandise was received on December 31 after the inventory had been counted. The invoice was received and recorded on December 30.
6. Included in inventory was $10,438 of inventory held by Werth on consignment from Jackel Industries.
7. Included in inventory is merchandise sold to Sims f.o.b. shipping point. This merchandise was shipped after it was counted. The invoice was prepared and recorded as a sale for $18,900 on
December 31. The cost of this merchandise was $11,520, and Sims received the merchandise on
8. Excluded from inventory was a carton labeled “Please accept for credit.” This carton contains merchandise costing $1,500 which had been sold to a customer for $2,600. No entry had been made to the books to reflect the return, but none of the returned merchandise seemed damaged.
(a) Determine the proper inventory balance for Werth Company at December 31, 2010.
(b) Prepare any correcting entries to adjust inventory to its proper amount at December 31, 2010.
Assume the books have not been closed.
E8-14 (FIFO, LIFO, and Average Cost Determination) LoBianco Company’s record of transactions for the month of April was as follows.
April 1 (balance on hand) 600 @ $6.00 April 3 500 @ $10.00
4 1,500 @ 6.08 9 1,300 @ 10.00
8 800 @ 6.40 11 600 @ 11.00
13 1,200 @ 6.50 23 1,200 @ 11.00
21 700 @ 6.60 27 900 @ 12.00
29 500 @ 6.79 4,500
(a) Assuming that periodic inventory records are kept, compute the inventory at April 30 using (1) LIFO and (2) average cost.
(b) Assuming that perpetual inventory records are kept in both units and dollars, determine the inventory at April 30 using (1) FIFO and (2) LIFO.
(c) Compute cost of goods sold assuming periodic inventory procedures and inventory priced at FIFO.
(d) In an inflationary period, which inventory method—FIFO, LIFO, average cost—will show the highest net income?
E8-25 (Dollar-Value LIFO) Presented below is information related to Martin Company.
Ending Inventory Price
Date (End-of-Year Prices) Index
December 31, 2007 $ 80,000 100
December 31, 2008 111,300 105
December 31, 2009 108,000 120
December 31, 2010 122,200 130
December 31, 2011 147,000 140
December 31, 2012 176,900 145
Compute the ending inventory for Martin Company for 2007 through 2012 using the dollar-value LIFO method.
P7-1 (Determine Proper Cash Balance) Francis Equipment Co. closes its books regularly on December
31, but at the end of 2010 it held its cash book open so that a more favorable balance sheet could be prepared for credit purposes. Cash receipts and disbursements for the first 10 days of January were recorded as December transactions. The information is given on the next page.
1. January cash receipts recorded in the December cash book totaled $45,640, of which $28,000 represents cash sales, and $17,640 represents collections on account for which cash discounts of $360 were given.
2. January cash disbursements recorded in the December check register liquidated accounts payable of $22,450 on which discounts of $250 were taken.
3. The ledger has not been closed for 2010.
4. The amount shown as inventory was determined by physical count on December 31, 2010.
The company uses the periodic method of inventory.
(a) Prepare any entries you consider necessary to correct Francis’s accounts at December 31.
(b) To what extent was Francis Equipment Co. able to show a more favorable balance sheet at December 31 by holding its cash book open? (Compute working capital and the current ratio.)
Assume that the balance sheet that was prepared by the company showed the following amounts:
Accounts payable $45,000
Other current liabilities 14,200
E9-1 (Lower-of-Cost-or-Market) The inventory of Oheto Company on December 31, 2011, consists of the following items.
Part No. Quantity Cost per Unit Cost to Replace per Unit
110 600 $95 $100
111 1,000 60 52
112 500 80 76
113 200 170 180
120 400 205 208
121a 1,600 16 14
122 300 240 235
aPart No. 121 is obsolete and has a realizable value of $0.50 each as scrap.
(a) Determine the inventory as of December 31, 2011, by the lower-of-cost-or-market method, applying this method directly to each item.
(b) Determine the inventory by the lower-of-cost-or-market method, applying the method to the total of the inventory.
E9-12 (Gross Profit Method) Astaire Company uses the gross profit method to estimate inventory for monthly reporting purposes. Presented below is information for the month of May.
Inventory, May 1 $ 160,000
Purchases (gross) 640,000
Sales returns 70,000
Purchase discounts 12,000
(a) Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of sales.
(b) Compute the estimated inventory at May 31, assuming that the gross profit is 25% of cost.
E10-5 (Treatment of Various Costs) Allegro Supply Company, a newly formed corporation, incurred the following expenditures related to Land, to Buildings, and to Machinery and Equipment.
Abstract company’s fee for title search $ 520
Architect’s fees 3,170
Cash paid for land and dilapidated building thereon 92,000
Removal of old building $20,000
Less: Salvage 5,500 14,500
Interest on short-term loans during construction 7,400
Excavation before construction for basement 19,000
Machinery purchased (subject to 2% cash discount, which was not taken) 65,000
Freight on machinery purchased 1,340
Storage charges on machinery, necessitated by noncompletion of
building when machinery was delivered 2,180
New building constructed (building construction took 6 months from date of
purchase of land and old building) 485,000
Assessment by city for drainage project 1,600
Hauling charges for delivery of machinery from storage to new building 620
Installation of machinery 2,000
Trees, shrubs, and other landscaping after completion of building (permanent in nature) 5,400
Determine the amounts that should be debited to Land, to Buildings, and to Machinery and Equipment.
Assume the benefits of capitalizing interest during construction exceed the cost of implementation. Indicate how any costs not debited to these accounts should be recorded.
E10-12 (Entries for Asset Acquisition, Including Self-Construction)
Below are transactions related to Impala company.
(a) The City of Pebble Beach gives the company 5 acres of land as a plant site. The market value of this land is determined to be $81,000.
(b) 14,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $50 per share are issued in exchange for land and buildings. The property has been appraised at a fair market value of $810,000, of which
$180,000 has been allocated to land and $630,000 to buildings. The stock of Impala Company is not listed on any exchange, but a block of 100 shares was sold by a stockholder 12 months ago at $65 per share, and a block of 200 shares was sold by another stockholder 18 months ago at $58 per share.
(c) No entry has been made to remove from the accounts for Materials, Direct Labor, and Overhead the amounts properly chargeable to plant asset accounts for machinery constructed during the year. The following information is given relative to costs of the machinery constructed.
Materials used $12,500
Factory supplies used 900
Direct labor incurred 16,000
Additional overhead (over regular) caused by construction 2,700
of machinery, excluding factory supplies used
Fixed overhead rate applied to regular manufacturing operations 60% of direct labor cost
Cost of similar machinery if it had been purchased from outside suppliers 44,000
Prepare journal entries on the books of Impala Company to record these transactions.
P9-9 (Statement and Note Disclosure, LCM, and Purchase Commitment) Maddox Specialty Company, a division of Lost World Inc., manufactures three models of gear shift components for bicycles that are sold to bicycle manufacturers, retailers, and catalog outlets. Since beginning operations in 1978, Maddox has used normal absorption costing and has assumed a first-in, first-out cost flow in its perpetual inventory system. The balances of the inventory accounts at the end of Maddox’s fiscal year, November 30, 2010, are shown below. The inventories are stated at cost before any year-end adjustments.
Finished goods $647,000
Work in process 112,500
Raw materials 264,000
Factory supplies 69,000
The following information relates to Maddox’s inventory and operations.
1. The finished goods inventory consists of the items analyzed below.
Down tube shifter
Standard model $ 67,500 $ 67,000
Click adjustment model 94,500 89,000
Deluxe model 108,000 110,000
Total down tube shifters 270,000 266,000
Bar end shifter
Standard model 83,000 90,050
Click adjustment model 99,000 97,550
Total bar end shifters 182,000 187,600
Head tube shifter
Standard model 78,000 77,650
Click adjustment model 117,000 119,300
Total head tube shifters 195,000 196,950
Total finished goods $647,000 $650,550
2. One-half of the head tube shifter finished goods inventory is held by catalog outlets on consignment.
3. Three-quarters of the bar end shifter finished goods inventory has been pledged as collateral for a bank loan.
4. One-half of the raw materials balance represents derailleurs acquired at a contracted price 20 percent above the current market price. The market value of the rest of the raw materials is $127,400.
5. The total market value of the work in process inventory is $108,700.
6. Included in the cost of factory supplies are obsolete items with an historical cost of $4,200. The market value of the remaining factory supplies is $65,900.
7. Maddox applies the lower-of-cost-or-market method to each of the three types of shifters in finished goods inventory. For each of the other three inventory accounts, Maddox applies the lowerof- cost-or-market method to the total of each inventory account.
8. Consider all amounts presented above to be material in relation to Maddox’s financial statements taken as a whole.
(a) Prepare the inventory section of Maddox’s balance sheet as of November 30, 2010, including any required note(s).
(b) Without prejudice to your answer to (a), assume that the market value of Maddox’s inventories is less than cost. Explain how this decline would be presented in Maddox’s income statement for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2010.
(c) Assume that Maddox has a firm purchase commitment for the same type of derailleur included in the raw materials inventory as of November 30, 2010, and that the purchase commitment is at a contracted price 15% greater than the current market price. These derailleurs are to be delivered to
Maddox after November 30, 2010. Discuss the impact, if any, that this purchase commitment would have on Maddox’s financial statements prepared for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2010.
P10-5 (Classification of Costs and Interest Capitalization) On January 1, 2010, Blair Corporation purchased for $500,000 a tract of land (site number 101) with a building. Blair paid a real estate broker’s commission of $36,000, legal fees of $6,000, and title guarantee insurance of $18,000. The closing statement indicated that the land value was $500,000 and the building value was $100,000. Shortly after acquisition, the building was razed at a cost of $54,000.
Blair entered into a $3,000,000 fixed-price contract with Slatkin Builders, Inc. on March 1, 2010, for the construction of an office building on land site number 101. The building was completed and occupied on September 30, 2011. Additional construction costs were incurred as follows.
Plans, specifications, and blueprints $21,000
Architects’ fees for design and supervision 82,000
The building is estimated to have a 40-year life from date of completion and will be depreciated using the 150% declining-balance method.
To finance construction costs, Blair borrowed $3,000,000 on March 1, 2010. The loan is payable in 10 annual installments of $300,000 plus interest at the rate of 10%. Blair’s weighted-average amounts of accumulated building construction expenditures were as follows.
For the period March 1 to December 31, 2010 $1,300,000
For the period January 1 to September 30, 2011 1,900,000
(a) Prepare a schedule that discloses the individual costs making up the balance in the land account in respect of land site number 101 as of September 30, 2011.
(b) Prepare a schedule that discloses the individual costs that should be capitalized in the office building account as of September 30, 2011. Show supporting computations in good form.